Saturday, April 30, 2016

women right to vote usa

The 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Few early supporters lived to see final victory in 1920.

Beginning in the 1800s, women organized, petitioned, and picketed to win the right to vote, but it took them decades to accomplish their purpose. Between 1878, when the amendment was first introduced in Congress, and August 18, 1920, when it was ratified, champions of voting rights for women worked tirelessly, but strategies for achieving their goal varied. Some pursued a strategy of passing suffrage acts in each state—nine western states adopted woman suffrage legislation by 1912. Others challenged male-only voting laws in the courts. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. Often supporters met fierce resistance. Opponents heckled, jailed, and sometimes physically abused them.

By 1916, almost all of the major suffrage organizations were united behind the goal of a constitutional amendment. When New York adopted woman suffrage in 1917 and President Wilson changed his position to support an amendment in 1918, the political balance began to shift.

On May 21, 1919, the House of Representatives passed the amendment, and 2 weeks later, the Senate followed. When Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment on August 18, 1920, the amendment passed its final hurdle of obtaining the agreement of three-fourths of the states. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified the ratification on August 26, 1920, changing the face of the American electorate forever.

Boston Woman riding scooter is hit, killed by duck boat filled with 30 passengers in Boston

boston woman killed
A 29-year-old woman was killed and her passenger was injured after the scooter she was driving was struck by an amphibious sightseeing vehicle in downtown Boston on Saturday.

The crash happened around 11:30 a.m. right near public park Boston Common when the vessel, known as a duck boat, collided with the scooter.

The woman and her male passenger were taken to Massachusetts General Hospital, where the woman died from her injuries, according to Boston police Officer Rachel McGuire. The passenger suffered non-life threatening injuries, McGuire added.

There were about 30 passengers on the duck boat when the crash happened, McGuire said. There were no other injuries.

Started in 1994, Boston Duck Tours float on the Charles River and stop at Boston historical spots like Bunker Hill, Faneuil Hall and Trinity Church.

Bob Schwartz, a Boston Duck Tours spokesman, said in an email that the group is cooperating with police and trying to obtain video footage to see what happened.

The cause of the crash is under investigation. No further details were immediately available.

This is not the first mishap on the nation’s roads and waterways involving duck boats.

A duck boat crashed into a charter bus, killing five passengers on the bus last year in Seattle. Two Hungarian tourists were killed in 2010 when a sightseeing duck boat was hit by a barge on the Delaware River near Philadelphia.

Also in Philadelphia, a Ride the Ducks vehicle struck and killed a woman in 2015 who witnesses say was crossing the street, distracted by her cellphone.

Duck boats were first used by the U.S. Army when it deployed thousands of amphibious landing craft during World War II that were known then by their military designation, DUKW. Once the war was over, they were used by civilian law enforcement agencies and also converted to sightseeing vehicles in U.S. cities. The DUKW designation was replaced with the duck boat moniker that is used by various tour companies.